The human skin is the outer covering of the body. In humans, it is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The skin has up to seven layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Human skin is similar to most of the other mammal’s skin, and human skin is very similar to pigskin. Though nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles, it can appear hairless. There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin (hairless). The adjective cutaneous literally means “of the skin” (from Latin cutis, skin). Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays an important immunity role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss. Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. This is often discolored and depigmented. In humans, skin pigmentation varies among populations, and skin type can range from dry to oily. Such skin variety provides a rich and diverse habitat for bacteria that number roughly 1000 species from 19 phyla, present on the human skin.
Knowing your true skin type can help the next time you’re in the cosmetics aisle. In fact, using the wrong products — or even popularized Internet hacks — for your skin type could worsen acne, dryness, or other skin problems. Your skin may cover your entire body, but its thickness varies, padding parts of your body more prone to wear and tear with thick skin and placing the thinner skin on the parts of your body that take less of a beating. The skin on your face is thinner than the skin on your body, with the exception of the chest, and deserves a bit more TLC, according to Valerie Goldburt, MD, Ph.D., and dermatologist at Advanced Dermatology and the Center for Laser and Cosmetic Surgery.
Daily Skin Care
No matter what your skin type is, a daily skin care routine can help you maintain overall skin health and improve specific concerns like acne, scarring, and dark spots. A daily skin care routine has four basic steps you can do once in the morning and once before you sleep.
Choose a cleanser that doesn’t leave your skin tight after washing. Clean your face no more than twice a day, or just once, if you have dry skin and don’t wear makeup. Avoid washing for that squeaky-clean feeling because that means your skin’s natural oils are gone. Cleansers known to work well for all skin types include Cetaphil and Banila Clean It Zero Sherbet Cleanser.
A serum with vitamin C or growth factors or peptides would be better in the morning, under sunscreen. At night, retinol or prescription retinoids work best. Makeup Artist’s Choice has an effective vitamin C and E serum and retinol available.
Even oily skin needs moisturizer, but use one that is lightweight, gel-based, and non-comedogenic, or doesn’t block your pores, like CeraVe’s facial lotion. Dry skin may benefit from more cream-based moisturizers like MISSHA Super Aqua Cell Renew Snail Cream. Most brands will label their products as gel or cream on their packaging.
Apply sunscreen with at least 30 SPF 15 minutes before heading outdoors, as it takes a while for sunscreen to activate. Darker skin tones actually need more sun protection because hyperpigmentation is harder to correct. Try EltaMD’s sunscreen, which offers broad-spectrum UVA/UVB protection and is recommended by the Skin Cancer Foundation.
There are ways to tackle skin problems without damaging your skin. Just remember the number one rule of skin care: Don’t pick! Picking at acne, blackheads, scabs, or other skin problems can cause open wounds or darker skin spots known as hyperpigmentation. Open wounds can lead to infections, more acne, or scars. The deeper the wound, the more likely your skin will scar.
Acne treatment depends on how deep or serious your acne is. Overall skin care is the most important step in treating acne, but for mild acne, you can use nonprescription products from your local drugstore such as:
salicylic acid (Stridex maximum strength acne pads)
benzoyl peroxide (Clean & Clear Persa-Gel 10 acne medication)
alpha hydroxy acids
tea tree oil
Always apply sunscreen after using these products in the morning, since they can cause extra skin sensitivity.
For immediate, inflamed, and individual pimples, you can also try acne patches or stickers. These are clear, thick patches that work as spot treatments to help promote blemish healing and prevent infections. Like blister bandages, acne patches pull out the fluid, sometimes overnight. It’s best to use these before you sleep as makeup can’t cover them.
Sebaceous filaments are tiny, cylinder-like tubes in your pores that are whitish yellow. These are often confused with blackheads, but blackheads are actually a type of acne that’s oxidized. Sebaceous filaments can make your pores look bigger, and you may be tempted to remove them by pinching your skin or using pore strips. But these methods may have more side effects than benefits for your skin, especially if you don’t do them properly.
Over time, you can also cause:
- open pores and infection
Topical preparations containing retinol or retinoids can help keep pores clear and clean. You may also find benefits from massaging your face with mineral or castor oil for one minute Another way of removing sebaceous filaments is with an extraction tool. This is a small metal instrument with a tiny circle at the end.
The safest method is to have an esthetician or dermatologist remove them for you, but you can also do this at home:
- Start with a clean face and instrument.
- Gently press the circle around the bump to see if the filament comes out. Be careful as excessive pressure can cause bruising and scarring.
- Treat the area with toner and moisturizer after.
- Always sanitize your instrument with rubbing alcohol before and after use to prevent infections.
- You may also see extra benefits by applying benzoyl peroxide after washing before extraction.
Natural Skin Care
You should see a dermatologist if your skin problems don’t go away with over-the-counter products. More severe acne, scarring, or other problems may need prescription treatment such as oral antibiotics, birth control, or topical prescription retinoids. Your dermatologist may perform an extraction for deeper cysts or acne spots that are stuck underneath your skin. Natural skin care uses topical creams and lotions made of ingredients available in nature. Much of the recent literature reviews plant-derived ingredients, which may include herbs, roots, flowers, and essential oils, but natural substances in skin care products include animal-derived products such as beeswax and minerals. These substances may be combined with various carrier agents, preservatives, surfactants, humectants, and emulsifiers. There are no legal definitions in the U.S. for advertising terms “natural” or “organic” when applied to personal care products. Consumers often express a preference for skin products with organic and natural ingredients. The personal skin care market based on natural products has shown strong growth. Clinical and laboratory studies have identified activities in many natural ingredients that have potential beneficial activities for personal skin care, but there is a shortage of convincing evidence for natural product efficacy in medical problems. Some natural products and therapies may be harmful, either to the skin or systemically. People prone to allergies should pay careful attention to what they use on their skin. Dermatologists may feel that there is enough scientific evidence to assist in the selection or avoidance of particular natural ingredients.
Consumers often express a preference for skin products with organic and natural ingredients. The skin care market based on natural products has shown strong growth. Clinical and laboratory studies have identified activities in many natural ingredients that have potential beneficial activities for the _ skin. Dermatologists may feel that there is enough scientific evidence to assist in the selection of particular natural ingredients. Consumers expected products to perform as advertised.
Voluntary discontinuation of precursor substances that release small quantities of formaldehyde, which is a carcinogen, as well as reducing levels of the potentially carcinogenic impurity 1,4-dioxane. Polycyclic musk fragrance ingredients, which have raised concerns as persistent and bioaccumulative endocrine disruptors, are being discontinued.
Dermatological research suggests that the bioactive ingredients used in cosmeceuticals have benefits beyond the traditional moisturizer (e.g., Chen et al., 2005; Zettersten, Ghadially, Feingold, Crumrine, & Elias, 1997). However, despite reports of benefits from some cosmeceutical products, there are no formal requirements to prove that these products live up to their claims. Biocompatible and environmentally friendly natural compounds have the potential to provide materials with photoresist and thermoresistant properties. Dehydroabietic acid (DAA), a naturally occurring diterpene resin acid, “has lifespan extension effects in Caenorhabditis elegans, prevents lipofuscin accumulation, and prevents collagen secretion in human dermal fibroblasts. We found that these anti-aging effects are primarily mediated by SIRT1 activation.” DAA may activate SIRT1 enzymatic activity, which may have a preventive effect on the aging process. Validated use of these materials and products awaits further assessment.
Side effects of Fairness Creams
If you follow the purchasing trend of the consumer world attentively you’ll at once discover that of all beauty products sold in the market, the number of fairness cremes sold per day is the highest, which no doubt implies that the number of customers who wish to buy such creams is also the highest. :smirk: Yes, everybody wants to have a fair skin. It is a sort of psychological obsession that if you have a fair skin you’ll be on the spotlights, get more important and get noticed even in huge crowds. And the prejudiced society furthermore encourages such beliefs. The matrimonial market gives preference to fair looking girls. Racism and the stigma associated with dark skin as it were, has gone deep into our DNA! So, young girls and boys today are crazily investing in the fairness creams quite ignorant of the many undesirable side-effects of such creams.
Types of Side Effects
Side effects of skin-lightening creams can include:
skin irritation and inflammation (redness and swelling)
a burning or stinging sensation.
itchy and flaky skin.
Choose the Correct Fairness Cream for the Suitable type of Skin. Try to use natural Products, You should see a dermatologist if your skin problems don’t go away with over-the-counter products. More severe acne, scarring, or other problems may need prescription treatment such as oral antibiotics, birth control, or topical prescription retinoids. Your dermatologist may perform an extraction for deeper cysts or acne spots that are stuck underneath your skin.